Member of the Legislative Assembly (India)

A Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district (constituency) to the Legislature of a State in the Indian system of government. Each state has between seven and nine MLA for every Member of Parliament (MP) that it has in the Lok Sabha. There are also Members in two unicameral legislatures in Union Territories: the Delhi Legislative Assembly and Puducherry Legislative Assembly.

State legislature

In states where there are two houses there is a Legislative Council and a Legislative Assembly . In such a case, the Legislative Council is the Upper House, while Legislative Assembly is the Lower House of the State Legislature. The Governor shall not be a member of the Legislature or Parliament; shall not hold any office of profit, shall be entitled to emoluments and allowances. (Article 158 of Indian constitution).

The Legislative Assembly consists of not more than 500 members and not less than 60. The biggest state like Uttar Pradesh has 403 members in its Assembly. States which have small population and are small in size have a provision for having even lesser number of members in the Legislative Assembly. Puducherry has 30 members. Mizoram, Goa have only 40 members each. Sikkim has 32 members. All members of the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of adult franchise, and one member is elected from one constituency. Just as the President has the power to nominate 2 Anglo Indians to the Lok Sabha, similarly, the Governor also has the power to nominate 1 member[1] from Anglo Indian's community as he/she deems fit, if he/she is of the opinion that they are not adequately represented in the Assembly.


The qualifications to member of the state Legislature are largely similar to the qualifications to be the members of Parliament. A person should be i) a citizen of India ii) not less than 25 years of age[2] to be member of the Legislative Assembly and not less than 30 years as per Article 173 of Indian Constitution to be a member of the Legislative Council.

No person can become a member of the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council of any state, unless he himself is a voter from any constituency of the state. Those who cannot become members of Parliament can also not become members of state Legislature. He is elected by the people of that particular constituency and represents those people in the legislative assembly and debates on issues related to his or her constituency.His position is like an MP only but the difference is only that MLA is in the state level and the MP is in the national level.


The term of the Legislative Assembly is five years. But it may be dissolved even earlier than five years by the Governor on the request of Chief Minister. The term of the Legislative Assembly may be extended during an Emergency, but not more than six months at a time.In the State of Jammu and Kashmir the tenure of the Legislative Assembly is 6 years.

The Legislative Council is the Upper House in the State. Just like the Rajya Sabha it is a permanent House. The members of state's upper house are selected based on the strength of each party in the lower house and by state gubernatorial nomination. The term of each member is 6 years and 1/3 members of the House retire after every two years. The upper house of a state assembly, unlike the Upper house of the Parliament, can be dissolved by the lower house, if it passes a specific law bill, which states to dissolve the upper house, and gets it attested in both houses of parliament and then signed by the president into law. Only Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh have their Upper houses in existence. All other states have abolished the upper house by the above mentioned method, as the upper house causes unnecessary problems and issues.


The most important function of the Legislature is law making. The State Legislature has the power to make laws on all items on which Parliament cannot legislate. Some of these items are police, prisons, irrigation, agriculture, local governments, public health, pilgrimages, burial grounds etc. Some items on which both Parliament and states can make laws are education, marriage and divorce, forests, protection of wild animals and birds etc.

As regards Money Bill, the position is the same. Bills can originate only in the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Council can either pass the bill within 14 days from the date of the receipt of the Bill or suggest changes in it within 14 days. But these changes may or may not be accepted by the Assembly.

The State Legislature besides making laws has one electoral power in electing the President of India. Elected members of the Legislative Assembly along with the elected members of Parliament are involved in this process.

Some parts of the Constitution can be amended by Parliament with the approval of half of State Legislatures. Thus the State legislatures take part in the process of amendment of the Constitution.

Current MLA Party Memberships in 2016

State Name TotalINCBJPLeftistsSocialist NDA Others IND Vacant
Andhra Pradesh 175 4 TDP 112 YSRCP 57 2
Arunachal Pradesh 60 1 11 PPA 48
Assam 126 26 60 AGP 14, BPF 12 AIUDF 13 1
Bihar 243 27 53 CPI-ML 3 RJD 80, JDU 71 LJP 2, RLSP 2, HAM 1 4
Chhattisgarh 90 39 49 BSP 1 1
Goa 40 9 21 MGP 3, GVP 2 5
Gujarat 182 57 121 JDU 1 NCP 2 1
Haryana 90 17 47 INLD 19 SAD 1 BSP 1 5
Himachal Pradesh 68 36 26 6
Jammu & Kashmir 87 12 25 CPM 1 PDP 28, JKPC 2 NC 15, PDF 1 3
Jharkhand 81 7 43 CPI-ML 1, MCC 1 JMM 19, JBSP 1 AJSU 4 JVM-P 2, BSP 1, JP 1, NSM 1
Karnataka 224 121 50 SP 1, JDS 40, BSRC 1, KMP 1, SKP 1 9
Kerala 140 22 1 CPM 58, CPI 19 JDS 3 IUML 18, KCM 6, KCJ 1, KCB 1, NCP 2, CMP(KSC) 1, C(S) 1, NSC 1 6
Madhya Pradesh 230 57 166 BSP 4 3
Maharashtra 288 42 123 PWPI 3, CPM 1 SP 1 SS 63, RSP 1 NCP 41, BVA 3, MNS 1, AIMIM 2, BBM 1 6
Manipur 60 47 2 NPF 4, LJP 1 AITC 5, NCP 1
Meghalaya 60 30 UDP 8, HSPDP 4, NPP 2 NCP 2, NESDP 1 13
Mizoram 40 34 MNF 5 MPC 1
Nagaland 60 5 NPF 55
Odisha 147 16 10 CPM 1 BJD 117, SKD 1 2
Punjab 117 43 12 SAD 59 3
Rajasthan 200 21 163 NPP 4 BSP 3, NUZP 2 7
Sikkim 32 SDF 21 SKM 10 1
Tamil Nadu 234 8 AIADMK 134, DMK 89, IUML 1
Telangana 119 13 5 CPM 1 TDP 15 TRS 78, AIMIM 7
Tripura 60 4 9 CPM 41, CPI 1 AITC 5
Uttar Pradesh 403 29 47 SP 231, RLD 8 BSP 79, PPI 4, NCP 1 4
Uttarakhand 70 27 28 + 9* BSP 2, UKD-P 1 3
West Bengal 294 44 3 CPM 26, RSP 3, AIFB 2, CPI 1 GJM 3 AITC 211 1
Delhi 70 3 AAP 67
Puducherry 30 15 AINRC 8 AIADMK 4, DMK 2 1
Total 4120 804 1096 163 593 484 891 87 2**

Presiding officers

Similar to the Presiding officers of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council also have Presiding Officers. The Legislative Assembly has a Speaker and a Deహకనభputy Speaker and the Legislative Council has a Chairman and a Deputy Chairman. They are elected from among the members of the House.

See also Election Commission of India


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